If you want to learn the correct
usage of lexicals, you will have to BE AWARE of their features. You can get
this knowledge by using the sentence(s) in which you encountered them, and A
COUPLE dictionaries. If you have a problem with two similar lexicals, compare
Let's try this with keep at
and keep up. Use your DRS article and the dictionary entries presented
here to answer these questions. After you try, check the answers below.
1. First, for each phrase find the
definition that fits the context in which you encountered the lexical.
2. For each lexical, identify each individual feature in the definitions.
3. For each lexical, identify each feature in the samples.
4. Compare the features.
If you keep at it, you continue
doing something that you have started, even if you are tired and would prefer
If you keep someone at it, you make them work hard and continuously, even if they are tired. The teachers kept us at it all afternoon.
1. If someone or something
keeps up, 1.1 they move at the same speed as someone or something
else. > I started to run a bit so that she had to hurry to keep up with
me. - They will have to get off the highway because they can't keep up.
1.2 they increase at the same speed and in the same way as something
else is increasing. > Supply could never have kept up with consumption.
- Pensions were increased to keep up with the rise in prices.
2. If someone keeps up, 2.1 they learn all the most recent facts about something. > They kept up with what was happening in their work. - Even friends have trouble keeping up with each other's whereabouts. 2.2 they work at the speed that is necessary for them to perform as well as other people in their group or to get all their work done in the required time. > They appear to be able to keep up with the class. - I shall be taking work home every night, you know, to keep up.
3. If you keep something up, 3.1 you continue to do it and do not let it stop or end. > It is very important for me to keep up my contacts. - He was unable to keep up the payments. - The tanks kept up a steady fire.
1. First, find the definition that
fits the context in which you encountered the lexical.
For keep at, we found the phrase in a paragraph telling us what we should do after we have worked hard at performing several steps: "And remember, someone out there is looking for someone just like you. It takes hard work and sometimes luck to find that person. Keep at it and you'll succeed." In Collins there is only one entry, so we can probably use that one.
For keep up, the context was what you should do to track down job openings, and this involves getting information: "Keep up with trade publications." Definition 2.1 seems to be the closest to our context.
2. For each lexical, identify each
individual feature in the definitions.
keep at: 1) continue doing something; 2) even if tired and would prefer to stop.
keep up: 1) learn 2) all the most recent facts
keep at: no sample. But you'll probably find one in another dictionary.
They kept up with what was happening in their work.
"They" = people (subject)
"what was happening" = events, information (object)
"wh" = wh-clause possible
"their work" = general context
Even friends have trouble keeping up with each other's whereabouts.
"Friends" = people (subject)
"with" = preposition to use with this lexical
"each other's whereabouts" = information (object)
FEATURES keep at keep up subject person person object activity
preposition x with other
even if tired
most recent situation or status